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UNIVERSITY PHYSICS – Table of Contents


Classical Mechanics

    Linear Dynamics

  1. One-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Overview
    2. Displacement and Average Velocity
    3. Instantaneous Velocity
    4. Position from Velocity
    5. Acceleration
    6. Constant Acceleration
  2. Vectors and Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Overview
    2. Kinematic Definitions in Three Dimensions
    3. Vectors
    4. Example: Free Fall (Gravity)
    5. Example: Soccer Ball Kick
    6. The Range Equation
    7. Superposition
  3. Relative and Circular Motion
    1. Overview
    2. Relative Motion in One Dimension
    3. Relative Motion in Two Dimensions
    4. Accelerating Reference Frames
    5. Rotating Reference Frames
    6. Centripetal Acceleration
    7. Examples
  4. Newton's Laws
    1. Overview
    2. Two Concepts
    3. Newton’s Second Law
    4. Units
    5. Momentum
    6. Example: Spaceship
    7. Newton’s First Law
    8. Newton's Third Law
  5. Forces and Free-Bdy Diagrams
    1. Overview
    2. Weight
    3. Support Forces: The Normal Force and Tension
    4. Springs
    5. Universal Gravitation
    6. Free-Body Diagrams
    7. Example: Accelerating Elevator
  6. Friction
    1. Overview
    2. Friction
    3. Kinetic Friction
    4. Static Friction
    5. Example: Box Sliding Down a Ramp
    6. Example: Box at Rest on a Ramp
    7. Example: Car Rounding a Corner
  7. Conservation Laws

  8. Work and Kinetic Energy
    1. Overview
    2. Work and Kinetic Energy in One Dimension
    3. Example
    4. The Dot Product
    5. The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem
    6. Examples: Work Done by Gravity Near the Surface of the Earth
    7. Work Done by a Variable Force: The Spring Force
    8. Work Done by Gravity Far from the Earth
  9. Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    1. Overview
    2. Conservative Forces
    3. Potential Energy
    4. Conservation of Mechanical Energy
    5. Gravitational Potential Energy
    6. Vertical Springs
    7. Non-Conservative Forces
  10. Work and Potential Energy
    1. Overview
    2. Box Sliding Down a Ramp
    3. Work Done by Kinetic Friction
    4. Forces and Potential Energy
    5. Examples: Force from Potential Energy
    6. Equilibrium
  11. Center of Mass
    1. Overview
    2. Systems of Particles and the Center of Mass
    3. Center of Mass for a Two-Body System
    4. Center of Mass for Systems of More than Two Particles
    5. Center of Mass for Continuous Mass Distributions
    6. Center of Mass of a System of Objects
    7. Dynamics of the Center of Mass
    8. The Center-of-Mass Equation
    9. Example: The Astronaut and the Wrench
  12. Conservation of Momentum
    1. Overview
    2. Momentum Conservation
    3. Momentum Example: Astronaut and Wrench
    4. Example: An Inelastic Collision
    5. Energy in Collisions
    6. Energy Loss in Collisions
    7. Center-of-Mass Reference Frame
    8. Example: Center-of-Mass Reference Frame
  13. Elastic Collisions
    1. Overview
    2. Elastic Collisions
    3. One-Dimensional Elastic Collisions
    4. The Center-of-Mass Frame
    5. Example: Center of Mass
    6. Elastic Collisions in Two Dimensions
  14. Collisions, Impulse and Reference Frames
    1. Overview
    2. Relative Speed in Elastic Collisions
    3. Elastic Collision Examples
    4. Forces During Collisions
    5. Impulse Examples
    6. Energy of a System of Particles
  15. Rotational Dynamics

  16. Rotational Kinematics and Moment of Inertia
    1. Overview
    2. Rotational Kinematics
    3. Relating Linear and Rotational Parameters
    4. Kinetic Energy in Rotations
    5. Moment of Inertia
    6. Moment of Inertia of a Solid Object
    7. Example: The Moment of Inertia of a Solid Cylinder
    8. Moment of Inertia for Solid Objects
  17. Parallel Axis Theorem and Torque
    1. Overview
    2. Parallel Axis Theorem
    3. Example: Moment of Inertia of a Dumbbell
    4. Torque and Angular Acceleration
    5. Example: Closing a Door
    6. Torque and the Cross Product
  18. Rotational Dynamics
    1. Overview
    2. Example: Disk and String
    3. Combining Translational and Rotational Motion
    4. Work and Energy in Rotations
    5. Total Kinetic Energy of a Rolling Ball
    6. Ball Rolling Down a Ramp
    7. Acceleration of a Rolling Ball
    8. Why Did that Last Derivation Work?
  19. Rotational Statics: Part I
    1. Overview
    2. Torque Due to Gravity
    3. Torque and Center-of-Mass Displacement from the Pivot
    4. Statics Example: Beam and Wire
    5. Example: Change Angle of Beam
    6. Example: Wire Breaks
  20. Rotational Statics: Part II
    1. Overview
    2. Example: Ladder
    3. Example: Box on a Truck
    4. Gravitational Potential Energy of Center of Mass
    5. Torque from the Gravitational Potential Energy
    6. Stability, Equilibrium, and the Center of Mass
  21. Angular Momentum
    1. Overview
    2. Angular Momentum
    3. Example: Point Particle Moving in a Circle
    4. Example: Solid Objects
    5. Example: A Disk Dropped on Another Disk
    6. Point Particle Moving in a Straight Line
    7. Playground Example
  22. Angular Momentum Vector and Precession
    1. Overview
    2. Example: Conservation of Angular Momentum
    3. Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy
    4. Vector Nature of Angular Momentum
    5. Precession
    6. Gyroscopes
  23. Applications − Waves / Fluids

  24. Simple Harmonic Motion
    1. Overview
    2. Introduction to Oscillations
    3. Simple Harmonic Motion
    4. Sines and Cosines
    5. Example
    6. Initial Conditions
    7. General Comments
  25. Simple and Physical Pendula
    1. Overview
    2. Simple Harmonic Motion
    3. The Torsion Pendulum
    4. Pendula
    5. The Simple Pendulum
    6. Physical Pendula
    7. The Small Angle Approximation
  26. Harmonic Waves and the Wave Equation
    1. Overview
    2. Harmonic Waves: Qualitative Description
    3. Harmonic Waves: Quantitative Description
    4. Harmonic Waves
    5. Newton’s Second Law
    6. The Wave Equation
    7. Waves Carry Energy
  27. Waves and Superposition
    1. Overview
    2. General Solution to the Wave Equation
    3. The Speed of a Wave is Determined by the Medium
    4. Superposition
    5. Standing Waves
    6. Standing Waves: Part II
    7. Example: Tuning Your Guitar
  28. Fluid Statics
    1. Overview
    2. States of Matter
    3. Pressure
    4. Pressure and Depth
    5. Example: The Barometer
    6. Archimedes’ Principle
    7. Floating
  29. Fluid Dynamics
    1. Overview
    2. Moving Fluids
    3. Continuity Equation
    4. Energy Conservation
    5. Bernoulli’s Equation
    6. Example: Bernoulli’s Equation
  30. Thermodynamics

  31. Introduction to Thermodynamics
    1. Overview
    2. Mechanics Is Incomplete
    3. The First Law of Thermodynamics
    4. Irreversible Processes
    5. The Arrow of Time
    6. Equilibrium, Entropy, and the Second Law
    7. Equilibrium from Maximizing Entropy
  32. Heat and Temperature
    1. Overview
    2. The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. Equilibrium and Temperature
    4. Thermodynamic Temperature
    5. Temperature Scales
    6. Heat Capacity
    7. Phases of Matter and Latent Heats
    8. An Example
  33. Ideal Gas
    1. Overview
    2. Entropy of an Ideal Gas
    3. The Ideal Gas Law
    4. Pressure of an Ideal Gas
    5. Equipartition
    6. Molar Heat Capacity at Constant Volume
    7. Molar Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure
  34. Equipartition, Heat Capacity and Conduction
    1. Overview
    2. Additional Degrees of Freedom: Diatomic Molecules
    3. Polyatomic Molecules
    4. A Model for Solids
    5. Quantum Effects and Equipartition
    6. Thermal Expansion
    7. Heat Conduction
  35. Heat Engines
    1. Overview
    2. Heat Engines
    3. Turning Heat into Wor
    4. Efficiency of a Heat Engine
    5. Quasi-static Processes and PV Diagrams
    6. The Stirling Cycle
    7. Efficiency of the Stirling Engine with an Ideal Gas
  36. Reversible Processes
    1. Overview
    2. Heat Engine Efficiencies
    3. Reversible Processes I
    4. Reversible Processes II
    5. Entropy Increase of a Stirling Engine
    6. Efficiency from Entropy Increase
    7. The Carnot Cycle
    8. Running a Heat Engine in Reverse
    9. Efficiency and Coefficient of Performance
    10. Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

Electricity and Magnetism

    Electricity

  1. Coulomb's Law
    1. Overview
    2. Electric Charge
    3. Distributions of Electric Charge in Matter
    4. Coulomb’s Law
    5. Superposition
    6. Examples
  2. Electric Fields
    1. Overview
    2. Elecric Fields
    3. Electric Field from a Point Charge
    4. Electric Field from an Electric Dipole
    5. Electric Field from an Infinite Line of Charge
  3. Electric Flux and Field Lines
    1. Overview
    2. Electric Flux
    3. Examples
    4. Gauss’ Law
    5. An Infinite Line of Charge and Gauss’ Law
    6. Electric Dipole Field Lines
  4. Gauss’ Law
    1. Overview
    2. Gauss’ Law and Symmetry
    3. Example: Spherical Symmetry
    4. Charges on Conductors
    5. Induced Charges on Conductors
    6. Example: Solid Infinite Cylindrical Conductor
    7. Infinite Sheet of Charge
    8. Superposition
  5. Electric Potential Energy
    1. Overview
    2. The Coulomb Force is a Conservative Force
    3. Electric Potential Energy
    4. Example: Speed as a Function of Distance
    5. Example: Potential Energy of a System of Charges
  6. Electric Potential
    1. Overview
    2. Electric Potential Defined
    3. Obtaining the Electric Field from the Electric Potential
    4. Equipotentials
    5. Example: Electric Potential from Collection of Point Charges
    6. Example: Uniformly Charged Spherical Insulator
    7. The Big Picture
  7. Conductors and Capacitance
    1. Overview
    2. Conductors are Equipotentials
    3. Equipotential Example
    4. Charge Distribution on Conductors
    5. Shielding in a Conductor with a Cavity
    6. Electric Potential and Capacitance
    7. Capacitors Store Energy
    8. Energy is Stored in the Electric Field
  8. DC Circuits

  9. Capacitors
    1. Overview
    2. Example: Parallel-Plate Capacitor
    3. Example: Adding a Conductor to a Parallel-Plate Capacitor
    4. Dielectrics
    5. Example: Inserting a Dielectric
    6. Capacitors in Parallel
    7. Example: Capacitors in Series
    8. Example: Combination of Capacitors
  10. Electric Current
    1. Overview
    2. A Qualitative Description of Electric Current
    3. A Quantitative Description of Electric Current
    4. Resistance
    5. Resistors in Series
    6. Resistors in Parallel
    7. Comparison with Capacitors
    8. Power
  11. Kirchhoff's Rules
    1. Overview
    2. Devices Review
    3. Kirchhoff’s Rules
    4. Conventions
    5. Single Loop Example
    6. Simple Circuit Example
    7. Two Loop Example
    8. Real Battery
  12. RC Circuits
    1. Overview
    2. Qualitative Description of Charging a Capacitor
    3. Quantitative Description of Charging a Capacitor
    4. Discharging a Capacitor
    5. Time Constants
    6. Power in a RC Circuit
    7. Example: Charging Two Capacitors
    8. Example: Discharging Two Capacitors
  13. Magnetism

  14. Magnetism
    1. Overview
    2. Magnetic Observations
    3. The Source of the Magnetic Field
    4. Magnetic Force
    5. Cross Products
    6. Velocity Selector
    7. Motion of a Charge in a Uniform Magnetic Field
    8. The Cyclotron
  15. Forces and Torques on Currents
    1. Overview
    2. Force on a Straight Current Segment
    3. Force on a Curved Current Segment
    4. Force on a Current Loop
    5. Torque on a Current Loop
    6. Dipole Moment of Current Loop
    7. Potential Energy of Dipole in Magnetic Field
  16. Biot-Savart Law
    1. Overview
    2. Biot-Savart Law
    3. Magnetic Field Produced by an Infinite Straight Wire
    4. Force between Two Parallel Current-Carrying Wires
    5. Magnetic Field along the Axis of a Current Loop
    6. The Off-Axis B field of a Current-Carrying Loop
  17. Ampere's Law
    1. Overview
    2. Review of Gauss’ Law
    3. Motivation of Ampère’s Law
    4. Example: Integrating with Semicircles
    5. Ampère’s Law
    6. Magnetic Field inside a Wire
    7. Magnetic Field Produced by an Infinite Sheet of Current
  18. Motional Emf
    1. Overview
    2. Electrodynamics
    3. Motional Emf
    4. Power Considerations
    5. Wire Loop Moving through a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field
    6. The Generator
    7. Connections
  19. Faraday's Law
    1. Overview
    2. Magnetic Flux
    3. Wire Loop Moving through a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field
    4. Flux through a Rotating Loop (the Generator)
    5. Faraday’s Law
    6. Lenz’ Law
    7. Faraday’s Law: E and B
    8. Examples
  20. AC Circuits

  21. Induction and RL Circuits
    1. Overview
    2. Self-Inductance
    3. Solenoids
    4. RL Circuits: Qualitative
    5. RL Circuits: Quantitative
    6. Energy in an Inductor
  22. LC and RLC Circuits
    1. Overview
    2. LC Circuits: Qualitative
    3. LC Circuits: Quantitative
    4. LC Circuits and Energy
    5. RLC Circuits
  23. AC Circuits
    1. Overview
    2. The Driven Series LCR Circuit
    3. Circuits with an AC generator and One Other Element (R, C, or L)
    4. The Driven LCR Circuit Solution from Phasors
    5. Example: Phasor Solution for Specific Driven LCR Circuit
  24. AC Circuits: Resonance and Power
    1. Overview
    2. The Driven LCR Circuit
    3. Resonance
    4. Power
    5. Q Factor
    6. Transformers
  25. Light and Optics

  26. Displacement Current and Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Overview
    2. The Fundamental Laws of Electricity and Magnetism
    3. The Problem
    4. The Solution
    5. Electromagnetic Waves
    6. The Velocity of Electromagnetic Waves
    7. Relationships of E and B in Electromagnetic Waves
  27. Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Overview
    2. E and B in Electromagnetic Waves
    3. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    4. Doppler Shifts
    5. Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. An Example
    7. Photons
  28. Polarization
    1. Overview
    2. Linear Polarization
    3. Polarizers
    4. Example
    5. Other Polarization States
    6. Birefringence and Quarter Wave Plates
  29. Reflection and Refraction
    1. Overview
    2. Geometric Optics
    3. Reflection
    4. Refraction
    5. Intensities
    6. Total Internal Reflection
    7. Polarization
  30. Lenses
    1. Overview
    2. Formation of Images
    3. Converging and Diverging Lenses
    4. The Lens Equation
    5. Examples
    6. The Lensmaker’s Formula
    7. Real Lenses
  31. Mirrors
    1. Overview
    2. Concave and Convex Spherical Mirrors
    3. The Mirror Equation and Magnification
    4. Convex Mirrors
    5. Plane Mirrors
    6. The Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror
  32. Optical Instruments
    1. Overview
    2. Multiple Lenses
    3. The Normal Eye
    4. The Myopic Eye
    5. The Hyperopic Eye
    6. Angular Magnification
    7. Telescopes
    8. Microscopes